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General blood analysis

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The results of blood tests show the general picture of the state of health of a particular person. In all surveys, this type of analysis is necessarily present. Of course, the doctor should decrypt it, but it would be nice for the patient to find out what indicators of the biochemical analysis of blood, and, of course, the general, exist, that they can mean how they are connected and correlate with each other, etc. In this article, you will learn about all the indicators of a general and biochemical blood test, as well as what norm is provided for each of them.

General blood counts

A general blood test (which is as familiar to many of us as a clinical one) is taken from the blood of a finger or vein. The study of such biological material is carried out in the morning on an empty stomach, or during the day, but on condition that the person did not eat and did not drink 2 hours before blood sampling.

In different laboratories, the forms, tables of results may vary, but the normal indicators themselves are always the same. This article will present indicators of the Russian standard, which are found in most public and private medical institutions.

An adult can simply read the results of a general blood test, because each form has a column where it is customary to indicate a standard norm indicator, and a graph of individual results. Just compare them. But! Most people, when they see that the result is different from the norm, start to panic. This cannot be done, because there are a lot of reasons for such phenomena, for example, increased hemoglobin is found in people who drink little water, or an increased number of white blood cells is often found in those involved in sports or fitness due to physical exertion. And those who smoke or take oral contraceptives may have lower hemoglobin and increased platelet count. Those. these are also normal options. Therefore, it is so important to go to the hospital with the results of the research so that the interpretation and evaluation of the indicators is carried out by a qualified specialist. People with medical education know the designation of each analysis, and therefore they know how to "read" them correctly, taking into account all factors.

So, we bring to your attention: table of indicators KLA (general blood test).

IndicatorsDescriptionNorm
RBC (red blood cells), red blood cellsRed blood cells. They show how well the cells “breathe”.For women - 3.5-5x pieces per 1 liter.
For men, 4.5-5x pieces per 1 liter.
Below the norm - anemia, lack of oxygen.
Above the norm - too thick blood, the risk of clogging of blood vessels.
HGB (Hb), hemoglobinHemoglobin transports oxygen to the cells.For women 120-160 g / l. During pregnancy or menstruation, 110-120 is permissible.
For men - 130-170 g / l.
Below the norm - anemia, lack of oxygen.
Above the norm - an increased number of red blood cells.
HCT, hematocritThe ratio of red and white bodies in the blood (percentage of red).For women - 0.36-0.46%.
For men - 0.41-0.53%.
Above the norm - blood clotting.
Below normal is anemia.
PLT (platelets), plateletsPlatelets are responsible for blood coagulation.For women and men the same - 180-360 x 109 per liter.
Above the norm - varicose veins, thrombosis.
Below the norm - problems in the hematopoietic system.
L, WBC (white blood cells), white blood cells.White blood cells provide immune defense.For women and men the same - 4-9 x 109 per liter.
Above the norm - inflammation, viruses, bacteria, fungi, blood loss.
Below the norm - some viral diseases.
ESR, ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rateIndirect indicator of the inflammatory process.For women - 12-20 mm / h, depending on age.
For men - 8-15 mm / h, depending on age.
Above the norm - possible inflammation.
Below the norm is a rare case.

Indicators of a biochemical blood test

A biochemical blood test is much more complicated, and it is prescribed when a disease is suspected. Doctors also recommend taking it as a preventive analysis with a comprehensive examination of the body. This type of analysis shows how well organs work - the liver, pancreas, kidneys, heart, etc. Blood is taken only from a vein 6-12 hours after a meal, i.e. optimal blood sampling in the morning on an empty stomach. Here you also need to consider individual characteristics. For example, an increased content of urea can be found after playing sports.

Table of indicators of a biochemical blood test.

IndicatorsDescriptionNorm
Blood sugar (glucose)All carbohydrates eventually turn into glucose and enter the bloodstream. According to how quickly glucose leaves the blood, thanks to the hormone insulin, we can judge some pathologies.For women and men the same is 3.3-6.1 mm / l.
Below normal - hypoglycemia due to hunger, diet, exercise.
Above the norm - diabetes.
UreaIn the process of protein digestion, ammonia is formed, which absorbs urea and excretes through the kidneys.For women and men the same - 2.5-8.3 mm / l.
Below normal - pregnancy, lactation, protein deficiency.
Above the norm is renal failure.
CreatinineThe product of protein metabolism in complex with urea. Shows the work of the kidneys.For women - 53-97 micromol / l.
For men - 62-115 micromol / l.
Above normal levels are hyperthyroidism or renal failure.
Below normal - fasting, vegetarianism, taking corticosteroids.
OH - total cholesterol, LDL - low density lipoprotein, HDL - high density lipoprotein.Fat level. LDL shows the risk of developing atherosclerosis, HDL - cleanses blood vessels.LDL:
For women - 1.92-4.51 mmol / L.
For men - 2.25-4.82 mmol / l.
HDL:
For women - 0.86-2.28 mmol / l.
For men - 0.7-1.73 mmol / l.
Any abnormalities indicate problems with CVD or liver.
TG, triglyceridesThe level of their content may indicate the presence of atherosclerosis or indicate a risk of obesity.For women - 0.41-2.96 mmol / l.
For men - 0.5-3.7 mmol / l.
Above the norm - thrombosis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, CCC diseases.
Below the norm - hyperthyroidism, trauma, chronic lung disease.
Total (OB), direct (PB) and indirect bilirubin (NB)Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin, forms bile, and therefore must respond and demonstrate the quality of the liver.ABOUT - 3.4-17.1 μmol / L.
PB - 0-3.4 μmol / L.
Above the norm - liver problems.
Below normal - hypobilirubinemia.

In addition to the indicators presented in the table, the following may also occur:

  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, ALAT) and aspartameminotransferase (AST, ALAT) - these are markers of the liver and heart, the indicators of which are the same: in men - up to 41 units / liter, in women - up to 31 units / liter. Elevated AST levels indicate liver problems, elevated ALT levels indicate heart problems.
  • Amylase and lipase - pancreatic enzymes. Amylase is responsible for the digestion of carbohydrates, lipase - fats. The norm of amylase is 28-100 U / L, lipase - 0-190 U / L. If the indicators are overestimated, this indicates inflammatory processes in the pancreas, or its damage.
  • Alkaline phosphatase - a marker of the liver, biliary tract, bone condition. For women, the norm is up to 240 units / liter, for men - up to 270 units / liter. Overestimated or underestimated indicators of this marker indicate many pathologies: liver, thyroid, menopause, calcium deficiency, excess vitamin C, etc.

How to recognize an infection by a blood test?

To determine the exact diagnosis in cases of suspected infections of various kinds, inflammation, acidification of the body, oncology, a general blood test with a white blood cell count must be taken. The results will indicate the following indicators:

  • Neutrophils. Cells that kill toxins and bacteria. Normally, healthy people make up 47-78%. Increased indicators indicate inflammatory processes, infections. And if the body contains a reduced number of cells, this indicates the presence of viruses, fungus, chronic infection, protozoa, like toxoplasmosis.
  • Lymphocytes Probably, these are the main regulators of human immunity. Normally, they make up 19-37%. Any infections, as well as some conditions of the body, for example, menstruation increase this indicator. With immunodeficiency and taking corticosteroid drugs, the indicator is greatly underestimated.
  • Granulocytes. This group also separately includes: eosinophils, monocytes and basophils. The norm for eosinophils is 0.5-5.0%. Allergies, asthma, taking antibiotics, helminths increase the rate. Monocytes normally make up 3-11%. The increased content indicates sexually transmitted diseases, protozoa infections, and tuberculosis. Basophils normally make up 0-1%. The increased content indicates allergies, inflammatory processes in the digestive tract, hormonal disorders.

What is it needed for?

A general clinical blood test is a classic medical research action, with which you can identify a number of discrepancies with the concentration standards of individual substances, which indicate that a person has a number of diseases and pathogenic conditions.

With its help, a qualified specialist can identify a variety of anemia and inflammatory processes in a patient.

Indications for appointment

A complete blood count is a must for absolutely any comprehensive examination. It is prescribed to all groups of categories of people, especially if there is suspicion of any kind of anemia or inflammatory diseases. In addition, a clinical blood test is an indicator of the success of treatment and a “monitor” of the patient’s health status change.

How to take?

This analysis is submitted in the morning. Within twelve hours before blood sampling, it is advisable to completely refrain from taking any food and liquids, except for ordinary clean water. The analysis itself is carried out within one day.

Most often, blood sampling is carried out with the ring finger of the right hand: its tip is first wiped with alcohol, then a puncture is made and collected with a special pipette into the vessel. More rarely, blood is collected from a vein for a general analysis.

The process of analyzing and interpreting the results is quite quick, performed using a microscopic examination or using an automated analytical system to count the number of blood cells, determine the level of hemoglobin and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

Reference (normal) values ​​of the level of red blood cells are presented in the table

AgeFloorThe level of red blood cells, × 10 12 cells / l
less than 2 weeks3,9–5,9
2 weeks - 1 month3,3–5,3
1–4 months3,0–5,1
4-6 months3,9–5,5
6–9 months4,0–5,3
9-12 months4,1–5,3
1-3 years3,8–4,9
3-6 years old3,7–4,9
6–9 years old3,8–4,9
9-12 years old3,9–5,1
12-15 years oldF3,8–5,0
M4,1–5,2
15-18 years oldF3,9–5,1
M4,2–5,6
18–45 years oldF3,8–5,1
M4,2–5,6
45–65 years oldF3,8–5,3
M4,2–5,6
over 65F3,8–5,2
M3,8–5,8

Reference (normal) hemoglobin level values ​​are presented in the table

AgeFloorHemoglobin level, g / l
less than 2 weeks134–198
2 weeks - 1 month107–171
1-2 months94–130
2–4 months103–141
4-6 months111–141
6–9 months114–140
9-12 months113–141
1-6 years110–140
6–9 years old115–45
9-12 years old120–150
12-15 years oldF115–150
M120–160
15-18 years oldF117–153
M117–166
18–45 years oldF117–155
M132–173
45–65 years oldF117–160
M131–172
over 65F117–161
M126–174

HCT - hematocrit

This indicator indicates the volume of red blood cells that they occupy in the fluid. The norm is expressed as a percentage - from 40 to fifty in men and from 35 to 45 in women. A decrease in this indicator indicates anemia, an increase is diagnosed with dehydration and erythrocytosis.

Reference (normal) hematocrit values ​​are presented in the table.

AgeFloorHematocrit,%
less than 2 weeks41–65
2 weeks - 1 month33–55
1-2 months28–42
2–4 months32–44
4-6 months31–41
6–9 months32–40
9-12 months33–41
1-3 years32–40
3-6 years old32–42
6–9 years old33–41
9-12 years old34–43
12-15 years oldF34–44
M35–45
15-18 years oldF34–44
M37–48
18–45 years oldF35–45
M39–49
45–65 years oldF35–47
M39–50
over 65F35–47
M37–51

PLT - Platelets

The norm of platelets in the blood is from 180 to 320 * 10 ^ 9 elements per liter of fluid. Their low level most often indicates aplastic anemia, cirrhosis of the liver, as well as a number of congenital and autoimmune diseases. A high level is diagnosed with blood diseases in the postoperative period.

WBC - white blood cells

The main protective mechanism of the immune system normally shows a concentration of four to nine * 10 ^ 9 elements per liter of test fluid. A decrease in this level indicates blood diseases and the negative consequences of taking a number of drugs, a high level indicates the presence of a bacterial infection in the body.

Reference (normal) values ​​of the level of leukocytes are presented in the table

AgeWhite blood cell count, × 10 9 cells / l
children under 1 year old6,0–17,5
1-2 years6,0–17,0
2–4 years5,5–15,5
4-6 years old5,0–14,5
6-10 years old4,5–13,5
10-16 years old4,5–13,0
children over 16 years old4,5–11,0
adults4

LYM - lymphocytes

Lymphocytes are the main “building block” of the immune system. Nome of their content in the blood - from 1.2 to three * per 10 ^ 9 liters. With a significantly increased concentration in the blood, infectious diseases of a wide spectrum are usually diagnosed. Low levels - renal / immune deficiency, AIDS, chronic diseases of a wide spectrum, as well as negative effects on the body, corticosteroids.

MON - monocytes

This element is considered to be a variation of white blood cells in macrophage form, i.e. their active phase, which absorbs dead cells and bacteria. The norm for a healthy person is from 0.1 to 0.7 * 10 ^ 9 e / l. A decrease in MON level is due to heavy operations and corticosteroid administration, an increase indicates the development of rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis, tuberculosis, mononucleosis and other diseases of an infectious nature.

ESR / ESR - RBC sedimentation rate

An indirect normal indicator of the behavioral factor of proteins in plasma is up to ten mm / h for the stronger sex and up to fifteen mm / h for the fair sex. A decrease in ESR indicates erythrocytosis and blood diseases, an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate indicates an activation of inflammatory processes.

Reference (normal) values ​​of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate are presented in the table

AgeFloorESR, mm / h
children under 10 years old0–10
11-50 years oldF0–20
M0–15
over 50 years oldF0–30
M0–20

Blood counts

Currently, most indicators are performed on automatic hematological analyzers, which are able to simultaneously determine from 5 to 24 parameters. The main ones are the number of leukocytes, the concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, the number of red blood cells, the average volume of the red blood cell, the average concentration of hemoglobin in the red blood cell, the average content of hemoglobin in the red blood cell, the half-width of the size distribution of red blood cells, the number of platelets, and the average platelet volume.

  • Wbc (white blood cells - white blood cells) - absolute leukocyte count (norm 4-9 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> cells / liter) - blood cells - responsible for the recognition and neutralization of foreign components, the body's immune defense against viruses and bacteria, elimination of dying cells of your own body.
  • Rbc (red blood cells - red blood cells) - the absolute content of red blood cells (norm 4.3-5.5 10 12 < displaystyle 10 ^ <12>> cells / liter) - blood cells - containing hemoglobin, transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide .
  • Hgb (Hb, hemoglobin) - the concentration of hemoglobin in whole blood (normal 120-140 g / l). For analysis, a cyanide complex or non-sterilizing reagents are used (as a substitute for toxic cyanide). Measured in moles or grams per liter or deciliter.
  • HCT (hematocrit) - hematocrit (norm 0.39-0.49), part (% = l / l) of the total blood volume, which falls on the formed blood elements. Blood 40–45% consists of uniform elements (red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells) and 60–55% of plasma. Hematocrit is the ratio of the volume of shaped elements to blood plasma. It is believed that the hematocrit reflects the ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the volume of blood plasma, since mainly red blood cells make up the volume of blood cells. The hematocrit depends on the amount of RBC and the value of MCV and corresponds to the product of RBC * MCV.
  • Plt (platelets - blood platelets) - absolute platelet count (norm 150-400 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> cells / l) - blood cells - involved in hemostasis.

Erythrocyte indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC):

  • Mcv - the average volume of an erythrocyte in cubic micrometers (microns) or femtoliters (fl) (norm 80-95 fl). In old analyzes indicated: microcytosis, normocytosis, macrocytosis.
  • Mch - the average hemoglobin content in a single erythrocyte in absolute units (norm 27–31 pg), proportional to the ratio “hemoglobin / number of red blood cells”. Color indicator of blood in old analyzes. CPU = MCH * 0.03
  • Mchc - the average concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte mass, and not in whole blood (see above HGB) (norm 300-380 g / l, reflects the degree of saturation of the red blood cell with hemoglobin. A decrease in MCHC is observed in diseases with impaired hemoglobin synthesis. Nevertheless, this is the most stable hematological indicator Any inaccuracy associated with the determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, leads to an increase in MCHC, therefore this parameter is used as an indicator of the error of the device or the error made in preparing the sample for the study.

Platelet Indices (MPV, PDW, PCT):

  • MPV (mean platelet volume) - average platelet volume (norm 7-10 fl).
  • PDW - the relative width of the distribution of platelets by volume, an indicator of platelet heterogeneity.
  • PCT (platelet crit) - thrombocrit (norm 0.108-0.282), the proportion (%) of the volume of whole blood occupied by platelets.

  • LYM% (LY%) (lymphocyte) - relative (%) content (normal 25-40%) of lymphocytes.
  • LYM # (LY #) (lymphocyte) - absolute content (norm 1.2-3.0x 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> / l (or 1.2-3.0 x 10 3 < displaystyle 10 ^ <3>> / μl)) lymphocytes.
  • MXD% (M> 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> / l) of monocytes, basophils and eosinophils.
  • NEUT% (NE%) (neutrophils) — относительное (%) содержание нейтрофилов.
  • NEUT# (NE#) (neutrophils) — абсолютное содержание нейтрофилов.
  • MON% (MO%) (monocyte) - relative (%) monocyte content (normal 4–11%).
  • MON # (MO #) (monocyte) - the absolute content of monocytes (norm 0.1-0.6 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> cells / l).
  • EO% - relative (%) content of eosinophils.
  • EO # - absolute content of eosinophils.
  • BA% - relative (%) content of basophils.
  • BA # - absolute content of basophils.
  • IMM% - relative (%) content of immature granulocytes.
  • IMM # - absolute content of immature granulocytes.
  • ATL% - relative (%) content of atypical lymphocytes.
  • ATL # - absolute content of atypical lymphocytes.
  • GR% (GRAN%) - relative (%) content (norm 47–72%) of granulocytes.
  • GR # (GRAN #) - absolute content (norm 1.2-6.8 x 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> / l (or 1.2-6.8 x 10 3 < displaystyle 10 ^ <3>> / μl) ) granulocytes.

  • HCT / RBC - the average volume of red blood cells.
  • Hgb / rbc - the average hemoglobin content in the red blood cell.
  • HGB / HCT - the average concentration of hemoglobin in the red blood cell.
  • RDW - Red cell Distribution Width - “erythrocyte distribution width” the so-called “erythrocyte anisocytosis” - an indicator of red blood cell heterogeneity, calculated as the coefficient of variation of the average volume of red blood cells.
  • RDW-SD - the relative width of the distribution of red blood cells in volume, standard deviation.
  • RDW-CV - the relative width of the distribution of red blood cells in volume, coefficient of variation.
  • P-LCR - coefficient of large platelets.
  • ESR (ESR) (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) is a non-specific indicator of the pathological condition of the body.

As a rule, automatic hematological analyzers also build histograms for red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells.

Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb) in a blood test is the main component of red blood cells that transports oxygen to organs and tissues. For analysis, a cyanide complex or non-sterilizing reagents are used (as a substitute for toxic cyanide). Measured in moles or grams per liter or deciliter. Its definition has not only diagnostic, but also prognostic value, since pathological conditions leading to a decrease in hemoglobin content lead to oxygen starvation of tissues.

Normal hemoglobin in the blood:

  • men - 135-160 g / l (gigamol per liter),
  • women - 120-140 g / l.

An increase in hemoglobin is noted with:

  • primary and secondary erythremia,
  • dehydration (false effect due to blood concentration),
  • excessive smoking (the formation of functionally inactive HbCO).

A decrease in hemoglobin is detected with:

  • anemia
  • hyperhydration (false effect due to hemodilution - “dilution” of blood, increase in plasma volume relative to the volume of the set of uniform elements).

Red blood cells

Red blood cells (E) in a blood test - red blood cells that are involved in the transport of oxygen into tissues and support biological oxidation processes in the body.

Normal red blood cell count:

An increase (erythrocytosis) in the number of red blood cells occurs when:

  • neoplasms
  • dropsy of the renal pelvis,
  • the effects of corticosteroids,
  • illness and Cushing's syndrome,
  • True polycythemia disease,
  • steroid treatment.

A small relative increase in the number of red blood cells may be due to blood clotting due to burns, diarrhea, and diuretics.

A decrease in red blood cell count is observed with:

  • blood loss
  • anemia
  • pregnancy
  • hydremia (intravenous administration of a large amount of fluid, i.e. infusion therapy)
  • with the outflow of tissue fluid into the bloodstream with a decrease in edema (therapy with diuretics).
  • decrease in the intensity of the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow,
  • accelerated destruction of red blood cells,

White blood cells (L) - blood cells formed in the bone marrow and lymph nodes. There are 5 types of leukocytes: granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils), monocytes and lymphocytes. The main function of leukocytes is to protect the body from foreign antigens (including microorganisms, tumor cells, the effect also manifests itself in the direction of the graft cells).

Normal white blood cell count: (4-9) x 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> / l

An increase (leukocytosis) happens with:

  • acute inflammatory processes
  • purulent processes, sepsis,
  • many infectious diseases of viral, bacterial, fungal and other etiologies,
  • malignant neoplasms,
  • tissue injuries
  • myocardial infarction
  • during pregnancy (last trimester),
  • after childbirth - during the period of breastfeeding,
  • after heavy physical exertion (physiological leukocytosis).

To reduce (leukopenia) leads:

  • aplasia, bone marrow hypoplasia,
  • exposure to ionizing radiation, radiation sickness,
  • typhoid fever,
  • viral diseases
  • anaphylactic shock,
  • Addison-Birmer disease,
  • collagenoses
  • under the influence of certain drugs (sulfonamides and some antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, thyreostatics, antiepileptic drugs, antispasmodic oral drugs),
  • bone marrow damage with chemicals, drugs,
  • hypersplenism (primary, secondary),
  • acute leukemia
  • myelofibrosis,
  • myelodysplastic syndromes,
  • plasmacytoma
  • bone marrow metastases,
  • pernicious anemia,
  • typhoid and paratyphoid,
  • collagenoses.

White blood cell count

Leukocyte formula (leukogram) - the percentage of different types of white blood cells, determined by counting them in a stained blood smear under a microscope.

In addition to the leukocyte indices listed above, leukocyte or hematologic indices are also calculated, calculated as the ratio of the percentage of different types of leukocytes, for example, the ratio of lymphocytes and monocytes, the ratio of eosinophils and lymphocytes, etc.

For what purposes is a general blood test performed?

A general blood test is an examination with which the following basic parameters of human blood are determined:

Hemoglobin level - the amount of a particular substance that is contained in red blood cells and is responsible for the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to other organs.

The total number of leukocytes (white blood cells) and leukocyte formula (the number of different forms of leukocytes expressed as a percentage).

The number of platelets (blood plates that are responsible for stopping bleeding when a vessel is damaged).

Hematocrit is the ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the volume of blood plasma (blood plasma is the part of blood that is devoid of cells).

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is the rate of deposition of red blood cells to the bottom of the tube, allowing you to judge some of the properties of the blood.

Each of these parameters can say a lot about the state of human health, as well as indicate possible diseases.

How is a general blood test performed?

A complete blood count does not require special preparation. As a rule, the analysis is carried out in the morning, on an empty stomach (or 2 hours after a meal). Blood for general analysis is taken from the finger (usually from the ring) using a special sterile tool - a scarifier. With a quick movement of the hand, the doctor makes a small puncture of the skin of the finger, from which a drop of blood soon appears. Blood is collected using a small pipette into a vessel resembling a thin tube. Less commonly, blood for a general blood test is taken from a vein.

The blood obtained is subjected to several studies: counting the number of blood cells with a microscope, measuring hemoglobin level, determining ESR.

Interpretation of the general blood test is carried out by the attending physician, however, you can evaluate the main blood counts yourself.

Decryption of the general blood test

Decryption of the general blood test It is carried out in several stages, during which the main indicators of blood are evaluated. Modern laboratories are equipped with equipment that automatically detects the basic parameters of blood. Such equipment usually gives the results of the analysis in the form of a printout in which the main parameters of the blood are indicated by abbreviations in English. The table below will present the main indicators of the general blood test, their corresponding English abbreviations and norms.


Indicator


What does this mean


Norm


Red blood cell count (RBC - English abbreviation red blood cell count - the number of red blood cells).


Red blood cells perform an important function of nourishing the body’s tissues with oxygen, as well as removing carbon dioxide from the tissues, which is then released through the lungs. If the level of red blood cells is below normal (anemia), the body receives insufficient amounts of oxygen. If the level of red blood cells is higher than normal (polycythemia, or erythrocytosis) there is a high risk that the red blood cells stick together and block the movement of blood through the vessels (thrombosis).


4.3-6.2 x 10 to 12 degrees / l for men


3.8-5.5 x 10 to 12 degrees / l for women


3.8-5.5 x 10 to 12 degrees / l for children


Hemoglobin (HGB, Hb)


Hemoglobin is a special protein that is found in red blood cells and is responsible for the transfer of oxygen to organs. A decrease in hemoglobin level (anemia) leads to oxygen starvation of the body. An increase in hemoglobin levels usually indicates a high number of red blood cells, or dehydration.


Hematocrit (HCT)


Hematocrit is an indicator that reflects how much blood is occupied by red blood cells. Hematocrit is usually expressed as a percentage: for example, hematocrit (HCT) 39% means that 39% of the blood volume is represented by red blood cells. Elevated hematocrit occurs with erythrocytosis (increased red blood cell count), as well as with dehydration. A decrease in hematocrit indicates anemia (a decrease in the level of red blood cells in the blood), or an increase in the amount of the liquid part of the blood.


39 - 49% for men


35 - 45% for women


The width of the distribution of red blood cells (RDWc)


The width of the distribution of red blood cells is an indicator that indicates how much the red blood cells differ in size. If large and small red blood cells are present in the blood, the distribution width will be higher, this condition is called anisocytosis. Anisocytosis is a sign of iron deficiency and other types of anemia.


Red blood cell volume (MCV)


The average volume of the red blood cell allows the doctor to obtain data on the size of the red blood cell. The average volume of an erythrocyte (MCV) is expressed in femtoliters (fl), or in cubic micrometers (μm3). Red blood cells with a small average volume are found in microcytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, etc. Red blood cells with a high average volume are found in megaloblastic anemia (anemia that develops with a deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid in the body).


The average content of hemoglobin in the red blood cell (Mch)


An indicator of the average hemoglobin content in an erythrocyte allows the doctor to determine how much hemoglobin is contained in one erythrocyte. The average hemoglobin content in the red blood cell, MCH, is expressed in picograms (pg). A decrease in this indicator occurs with iron deficiency anemia, an increase - with megaloblastic anemia (with a deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid).


The average concentration of hemoglobin in the red blood cell (ICSU)


The average concentration of hemoglobin in an erythrocyte reflects how saturated the hemoglobin is. A decrease in this indicator occurs with iron deficiency anemia, as well as with thalassemia (congenital blood disease). An increase in this indicator is practically not found.


Platelet count (blood platelet, PLT - English abbreviation platelets - records)


Platelets are small platelets of blood that are involved in the formation of a blood clot and prevent blood loss during vascular damage. An increase in platelet blood levels occurs in some blood diseases, as well as after surgery, after removal of the spleen. A decrease in platelet count occurs in some congenital blood diseases, aplastic anemia (a malfunction of the bone marrow that produces blood cells), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (platelet destruction due to increased activity of the immune system), liver cirrhosis, etc.


White blood cell count (WBC stands for English Abbreviation white blood cell count - the number of white blood cells)


White blood cells (white blood cells) protect the body from infections (bacteria, viruses, parasites). White blood cells are larger than red blood cells, but they are contained in the blood in much smaller quantities. A high level of leukocytes indicates the presence of a bacterial infection, and a decrease in the number of leukocytes occurs when taking certain medications, blood diseases, etc.


4.0 - 9.0 × 10 to 9 degrees / L


Lymphocyte count (LYM English contraction, LY% percentage of lymphocytes)


Lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell that is responsible for the production of immunity and the fight against microbes and viruses. The number of lymphocytes in different analyzes can be represented as an absolute number (how many lymphocytes were detected), or as a percentage (what percentage of the total number of leukocytes is lymphocytes). The absolute number of lymphocytes is usually indicated by LYM # or LYM. The percentage of lymphocytes is designated as LYM% or LY%. An increase in the number of lymphocytes (lymphocytosis) occurs in some infectious diseases (rubella, flu, toxoplasmosis, infectious mononucleosis, viral hepatitis, etc.), as well as in blood diseases (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, etc.). A decrease in the number of lymphocytes (lymphopenia) occurs in severe chronic diseases, AIDS, renal failure, the use of certain drugs that suppress the immune system (corticosteroids, etc.).


LYM # 1.2 - 3.0x109 / l (or 1.2-63.0 x 103 / μl)


The content of a mixture of monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and immature cells (MID, MXD)


Monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and their precursors circulate in blood in small quantities, so often these cells are combined into one group, which is referred to as MID or MXD. This group can be expressed as a percentage of the total number of leukocytes (MXD%), or as an absolute number (MXD #, MID #). These types of blood cells also belong to leukocytes and perform important functions (combating parasites, bacteria, the development of allergic reactions, etc.) The absolute and percentage content of this indicator increases if the number of one of the types of cells included in its composition increases. To determine the nature of the changes, as a rule, the percentage ratio of each type of cell (monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and their predecessors) is studied.


MID # (MID, MXD #) 0.2-0.8 x 109 / L


Granulocyte count (GRA, GRAN)


Granulocytes are white blood cells that contain granules (granular white blood cells). Granulocytes are represented by 3 types of cells: neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. These cells are involved in the fight against infections, in inflammatory and allergic reactions. The number of granulocytes in various analyzes can be expressed in absolute terms (GRA #) and as a percentage of the total number of leukocytes (GRA%).


Granulocytes are usually elevated in the presence of inflammation in the body. A decrease in the level of granulocytes occurs with aplastic anemia (loss of the ability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells), after taking certain medications, and also with systemic lupus erythematosus (connective tissue disease), etc.


GRA # 1.2-6.8 x 109 / L (or 1.2-6.8 x 103 / μl)


Monocyte count (MON)


Monocytes are white blood cells that, once in the vessels, soon leave them in the surrounding tissues, where they turn into macrophages (macrophages are cells that absorb and digest bacteria and dead body cells). The number of monocytes in various analyzes can be expressed in absolute terms (MON #) and as a percentage of the total number of leukocytes (MON%). The increased content of monocytes is found in certain infectious diseases (tuberculosis, infectious mononucleosis, syphilis, etc.), rheumatoid arthritis, and blood diseases. A decrease in the level of monocytes occurs after heavy operations, taking medications that suppress the immune system (corticosteroids, etc.).


MON # 0.1-0.7 x 109 / l (or 0.1-0.7 x 103 / μl)


The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ESR, ESR.


The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is an indicator that indirectly reflects the plasma protein content. Increased ESR indicates a possible inflammation in the body due to the increased content of inflammatory proteins in the blood. In addition, an increase in ESR occurs with anemia, malignant tumors, etc. A decrease in ESR is rare and indicates an increased content of red blood cells (erythrocytosis), or other blood diseases.


Up to 10 mm / h for men


Up to 15 mm / h for women

It should be noted that some laboratories indicate other norms in the analysis result, which is due to the presence of several methods for calculating indicators. In such cases, the interpretation of the results of a general blood test is carried out according to specified standards.

In addition to decoding a blood test, you can also make decryptions of urine and feces tests there

Color indicator

Color Index (CPU) - the degree of saturation of red blood cells with hemoglobin:

  • 0.85-1.05 - the norm,
  • less than 0.80 - hypochromic anemia,
  • 0.80-1.05 - red blood cells are considered normochromic,
  • more than 1.10 - hyperchromic anemia.

In pathological conditions, a parallel and approximately the same decrease in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin is noted.

A decrease in CPU (0.50-0.70) occurs when:

  • iron deficiency anemia,
  • anemia caused by lead intoxication.

Увеличение ЦП (1,10 и более) бывает при:

  • недостаточности витамина В12 в организме,
  • недостаточности фолиевой кислоты,
  • раке,
  • полипозе желудка.

Для правильной оценки цветового показателя нужно учитывать не только количество эритроцитов, но и их объём.

Скорость оседания эритроцитов (ESR) is a non-specific indicator of the pathological condition of the body. Fine:

  • newborns - 0-2 mm / h,
  • children under 6 years old - 12-17 mm / h,
  • men up to 60 years old - up to 8 mm / h,
  • women under 60 years old - up to 12 mm / h,
  • men over 60 years old - up to 15 mm / h,
  • women over 60 years old - up to 20 mm / h.

An increase in ESR occurs with:

  • infectious and inflammatory disease
  • collagenoses
  • damage to the kidneys, liver, endocrine disorders,
  • pregnancy, the postpartum period, menstruation,
  • bone fractures
  • surgical interventions
  • anemia
  • oncological diseases.

It can also increase under physiological conditions such as eating (up to 25 mm / h), pregnancy (up to 45 mm / h).

A decrease in ESR occurs when:

  • hyperbilirubinemia,
  • increased levels of bile acids,
  • chronic circulatory failure,
  • erythremia,
  • hypofibrinogenemia.

Instead of an afterword

Above, classical generally accepted designations of the results of a general blood test were indicated. A number of laboratories can vary their results, expressing qualitative, quantitative and concentration indicators of elements in other forms (for example, percentage), which is associated with the use of a different calculation methodology, but the essence of the results remains the same.

Be sure to regularly take a general blood test and be aware of the current state of your body! Do not be sick, but warn the problem in advance using classic analysis methods.

Causes of hemoglobin increase

  • Dehydration (decreased fluid intake, excessive sweating, impaired renal function, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, profuse vomiting or diarrhea, diuretics)
  • Congenital heart or lung defects
  • Pulmonary insufficiency or heart failure
  • Kidney disease (renal artery stenosis, benign kidney tumors)
  • Hematopoietic diseases (erythremia)

Causes of Red Blood Cell Reduction

Reduced red blood cell count is called anemia. There are many reasons for the development of this condition, and they are not always associated with the hematopoietic system.
  • Errors in nutrition (food poor in vitamins and protein)
  • Blood loss
  • Leukemia (diseases of the hematopoietic system)
  • Hereditary fermentopathies (defects in enzymes that are involved in hematopoiesis)
  • Hemolysis (death of blood cells as a result of exposure to toxic substances and autoimmune lesions)

The reasons for the increase in the number of red blood cells

  • Dehydration (vomiting, diarrhea, excessive sweating, decreased fluid intake)
  • Erythremia (diseases of the hematopoietic system)
  • Diseases of the cardiovascular or pulmonary system that lead to respiratory and heart failure
  • Renal artery stenosis
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